Our History

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The 1840s | The 1850s & 60s | The 1870s | The 1880s | The 1900s-10s | The 1920s-30s | The 1940s-50s | The 1960s | The 1970s | The 1980s | The 1990s | The 2000s | Today

In celebrating 175 years, we look back and see how qualities of adaptability and steadfastness drove our history and has shaped us into who we are today.  While remaining committed to worshipping our God and practicing our religion, we have gone from being an Orthodox to a Reform synagogue; we have moved from downtown to uptown; we started the first Jewish Reform day school in the U.S., and we were one of the first to welcome women and LGBT rabbis and cantors as our clergy.  We have had an eventful past, and we look forward to creating an exciting future.


In the 1840s,

1. SLIDE--Jewish Lifethe Lower East Side, new Americans flooded into the city. Many used their new freedom to practice religion to set up houses of worship that would also serve as centers of social and cultural life.
• 1842: Agreement in German signed by 80 people to establish Congregation Rodeph Sholom at 157 Attorney Street, NYC Land purchased for use as cemetery at Park Avenue and 88th Street, then the outskirts of the City.  The original charter stated the immediate need to organize to worship, to visit the sick, to help new immigrants and educate the young.
• 1844: Rabbi Merzbacher, first Rabbi, left congregation over dispute on use of sheitels by women members.  He felt it was not necessary, and the CRS congregants at the time did.
• 1849: CRS participated in support of a Jewish Day School, known as Union Day School.

2-SLIDE_ClintonStIn the 1850s,

as Rodeph Sholom became an established shul, leadership and congregants pursued tikkun olam and its central role in the serving the Jewish Community.

1850: With 189 members, CRS moved to new home on Clinton Street. Synagogue purchased tract of land in Cypress Hills for future site of new cemetery, presently Union Field Cemetery.
1858: CRS contributed financial aid to Jewish community in New Orleans stricken by epidemic.
1865: Representatives of CRS participated in Memorial services at Union Square for President Lincoln.
1866: Magazine Jewish Messenger praised congregation for allowing “liberal” Rabbi Huebsch to preach a sermon.

In the 1870s,

we worked steadily to ensure that Jews had access to health care and those who were needy had help get3-SLIDE Mt. Sinaiting food and clothing.

1871: Passover collection made for Mt. Sinai Hospital in NYC; formerly known as Jews’ Hospital.
1875: Rabbi Aaron Wise, father of Stephen Wise, appointed Rabbi; renovated synagogue rededicated with Conservative service, using choir and organ for first time; criticism evoked by occasional sermons in English instead of German.
1878: Dedication of Union Field Cemetery in Cypress Hills, then a three hour ride from the Synagogue by horse and buggy.
1879: Young Ladies Sewing Society distributed 100 dresses to Hebrew Free School.

In the 1880s,

4-SLIDE Lex Ave buildingan era of prosperity paved the way to assuring the future of Judaism in America, through founding new institutions and keeping up with the congregants as they moved out of their neighborhoods of origin and .
1884: Funds raised for relief of Jews suffering from pogroms in Russia.
1886: Rabbi Aaron Wise instrumental in founding Jewish Theological Seminary, espousing Conservative Judaism.
1887: Fire in Clinton Street synagogue necessitated rebuilding and rededication
1889: Resolution passed to sell Clinton Street synagogue and move uptown due to changing demographics and the need for larger quarters.
1891: On September 4, first service held in new synagogue at Lexington Avenue and 63rd Street; Rodeph Sholom Sisterhood founded, revitalizing the Young Ladies Sewing Society.
1892: “Anniversary Oration,” celebrating 50th year of the Congregation, was delivered by 18 year old Stephen S. Wise.
1896: Sudden death of Rabbi Aaron Wise; Rabbi Stephen Wise declined invitation to succeed his father.
1897: Rabbi Rudolph Grossman inducted as new Rabbi; a revised Prayer Book introduced and used for many years.
1899: In a sermon, Rabbi Grossman appealed to the congregation to make the wearing of hats by men optional and to abandon second day of High Holy Day services.

1900-1910:

5-SLIDE WW1 SceneAs Jews began to assume leadership positions in political life and in industry, Jewish identity shifted to a strong emphasis on “being American.” Those of an older generation were disinclined to pass along fluency in Yiddish to their children and grandchildren. This was also an era where Jews served in large numbers fighting for America as US citizens.

1901: CRS joined the Union of America Hebrew Congregations and became a supporter of Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati
1906: In addition to aiding refugees suffering from persecution in Russia, the congregation helped victims of San Francisco earthquake.
1912: CRS paid tribute to Democratic Congressman Henry Goldfogle, later President of CRS, for leadership in protesting Russian discrimination against Jews.
1914: Women’s Association formed to implement cultural programs and philanthropic activities of Sisterhood.
1915: Nathan G. Meltzoff inducted as Cantor, serving until his retirement in 1952 when he became Cantor Emeritus.
1917: Congregation celebrated 75th anniversary for three days, together with 25th anniversary of Rabbi Grossman’s appointment
1918: Dedication of bronze plaque bearing names of CRS members who served in World War I.

CRS roared through the 1920s

US 2614in robust health, purchasing land for what is our current building and having an architect draw up plans. The early 30’s continued a trend at CRS that is still with us to this day—welcoming clergy and staff who choose to spend their entire careers at CRS.

1923: Congregational Bulletin founded.
1924: Union Prayer Book adopted, marking CRS’ formal identification with Reform Judaism.
1926: Land on West 83rd Street purchased for building new synagogue; final service at Lexington Avenue synagogue held on October 4; new Gate House at Union Field Cemetery authorized to replace Chapel built in 1889.
1928: Temporary services held at Mecca Temple for two years, with Mitchell S. Fisher as interim rabbi (Rabbi Grossman passed away in 1927.)
1930: In March, CRS moved to its present home on West 83rd Street. Louis I. Newman inducted as Rabbi, with Rabbis Stephen Wise and Nathan Kras participating in ceremonies; Parents Association formed under sponsorship of Honorary President Samuel Falk; The Chronicle was launched.
1934: Sunday morning community services introduced. Offered until 1949, they featured classical choral works performed by a 40-voice community choir under the direction of Cantor Meltzoff, and included guest speakers Franz Werfel, Sean O’Casey, Orson Welles, and Jan Masaryk.
1937: Max Feder appointed first Executive Secretary, serving until retirement in 1972.

1940s-50s:

7. SLIDE -- 1940s image for timeline_Page_2Rodeph Sholom worked hard to support the war effort, and to be essential part serving earlier pioneering generations as they grew into their retirement years in the 1950s. The 1950s was also an era of new view of early childhood education as a foundation for a good life, and CRS stepped up.

1942: 100th anniversary of CRS celebrated with guest speaker Presidential candidate Wendell Wilkie.
1942-45: CRS became a model for congregational involvement in World War II war effort. Under the direction of the War Activities committee, it served as a distribution center for items sent to troops overseas and as a headquarters for local air raid wardens and air defense groups.
1952: Gunter Hirschberg appointed Cantor, succeeding Nathan Meltzoff who retired as Cantor Emeritus; Foundation Fund established to ensure Temple’s future financial stability.
1953: Golden Age Club founded for local seniors, a pioneer activity in the Reform Movement.
1958: Nursery school founded under the direction of Mrs. Gerda Miller.

1960s:

Cantor Gunter Hirshberg, Walter Weisman President, Mayor John Lindsey, Rabbi Lewis Newman 1961With early waves of immigration now a faint memory, younger generations were interested in reclaiming their identity, through learning Hebrew and travel to Israel. The Seven Day War of 1967 proved to be a strong rallying point for support of Israel and Jewish pride.
1963: Gunter Hirschberg ordained and appointed Associate Rabbi; Ephraim Biran inducted as Cantor.
1965: Congregation purchased four brownstone houses on West 84th Street as future site for Day School.
1967: Congregation celebrated 125th anniversary at Plaza Hotel with guest speakers Senator Jacob Javits and Rabbi Maurice Eisendrath, President of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations.
1968: First Festival of Jewish Arts initiated. Business and Professional Club established to meet needs of those not served by other Temple activities; Brotherhood celebrated its 50th anniversary.

In the 1970s,

Cornerstone Laying Ceremony 10-14-73quality education based in the Reform Jewish way of learning and worship was a top priority for Rodeph Sholom:

1970: Rodeph Sholom Day School, first in U.S. sponsored by a Reform congregation, started as pilot project with
kindergarten and 1st grade; Parents Educational Guild founded to represent parents of Nursery and Day Schools; the opera “Tamar and Judah,” with libretto by Rabbi Newman, performed as tribute to his forty years of service.
1971: CRS chosen by Channel 13 for live broadcast of “Hear Our Voices,” a tribute to cantorial singing;
Sisterhood celebrated 80th anniversary.
1972: Rabbi Gunter Hirschberg appointed Senior Rabbi upon the death of Rabbi Louis I. Newman;
Board of Trustees formally approved the Day School, consisting of kindergarten through 6th grade; CRS began family services.
1973: Rodeph Sholom Community Chorus founded with Paula Biran as Conductor.
1974: Children’s Choir founded by Cantor Ephraim Biran; Nutrition and Health Program initiated with neighboring church, including hot lunches served on the Sabbath for neighborhood senior citizens; Bernice Kaufman appointed Director of the Nursery School.
1976: Adult Bar Mitzvah and Bat Mitzvah initiated, with 37 men and women completing program; new prayer book, Gates of Prayer, adopted; Ecumenical Thanksgiving service celebrated with Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church.
1977: Rodeph Sholom Day School moves into new building on West 84th Street adjoining the synagogue; early “Welcome the Sabbath” services and dinners for congregants and school parents initiated.

1980s:

10-SLIDE RallyInWashington_2Tikkun olam, in the form of sewing, helping the poor, and making contributions to worthy causes were part of CRS from the first day, but in this era, we upped our game considerably.

1981: Concerned Citizens Committee established as CRS’ social action and community outreach arm.
1983: In response to challenge from Mayor Koch to NYC synagogues and churches to house the homeless, CRS opens homeless shelter for men.
1985: CRS embarked on a major refurbishment of the lobby and the Sanctuary, restoring them to their original state.
1988: Rabbi Gunther Hirschberg elected President of the New York Board of Rabbis.
1989: Congregation mourned the death of Rabbi Gunter Hirschberg.

1990s: 

In 125 years, Congregation Rodeph Sholom has had four senior rabbis. Our number four , Rabbi Robert N. Levine, is celebrating 25 years along with the shul’s 175th. The 1990s also saw CRS making a bold move with new clergy.

1990: Janet Neuberger elected as first woman President of CRS
1991: Rabbi Robert N. Levine installed as Senior Rabbi; Nursery School renamed in honor of the Schnurmacher family; Day School renamed to honor Rabbi Gunter Hirschberg; Sisterhood celebrated its centennial year; Meyer W. Nathans Service Award established; Caring Community established.
1992: The Congregation celebrated its 150th anniversary.
1993: CRS acquired buildings on West 78th and 79th Streets for expansion of Rodeph Sholom School; 79th Street building dedication ceremony.
1995: Camille Shira Angel appointed Assistant Rabbi, the fi rst woman Rabbi at CRS and the second self-identified gay or lesbian Rabbi to serve a mainstream Reform Congregation.
1998: Lewis Steinman Religious School Enrichment program for special needs children established in CRS Religious School150th Anniversary Confirmation Reunion 1992 cropped

2000s

13-SLIDE-ShireinuWe’re not just getting better—we’re getting older! CRS took on some major capital projects in this era. Accessibility and space upgrades ensure optimal access and worship experience for our congregants.

Accessibility efforts of the early aughts started a larger dialogue about inclusion. How could we better serve those for whom attending a religious service was difficult? In 2010, we inaugurated first Shireinu special needs worship service at Rosh Hashanah. CRS now leads four holiday Shireinu services each year.

2000: Rebecca Garfein appointed first female cantor; CRS building and bimah made handicapped accessible.
2001: Rodeph Sholom School added 7th and 8th grades.
2003: The sixth floor of CRS completely rebuilt to include Schnurmacher Chapel, Eisner Auditorium and an outdoor play area for the nursery school; ground floor lobby expanded and renovated with a second elevator for access to the sixth floor.
2004: The first graduating class of the Rodeph Sholom School.
2005: CRS and Rodeph Sholom School implement new school governance plan giving RSS increased independence; Friends of RSS incorporated.
2006: Rabbi Robert N. Levine elected President of the New York Board of Rabbis.

The way we live now

175 years after our founding, Congregation Rodeph Sholom remains a steadfast beacon for Judaism and celebrating Jewish traditions. We are also a nimble and adaptable institution that strives to serve our people and community now and for generations to come.

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